Evolving complexity of complement-related diseases: C3 glomerulopathy and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The current review will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the pathology of C3 glomerulopathy and atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS).

Recent findings

C3 glomerulopathy and aHUS are associated with abnormalities of control of the alternative pathway of complement. Recent articles have provided new insights into the classification of C3 glomerulopathy and its relationship to idiopathic immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. They suggest that there may be considerable overlap in pathogenesis between these entities and have indicated novel ways in which classification may be improved. There is increasing evidence that monoclonal gammopathy may cause C3 glomerulopathy or aHUS in older patients and emerging evidence that treatment of the underlying plasma cell clone may ameliorate the kidney disease.

Summary

Recent work has provided new insights into the causes of C3 glomerulopathy and aHUS, and the mechanism by which complement is dysregulated. This is of particular importance with the advent of new therapeutic agents which can specifically target different parts of the complement cascade.

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