AbstractPurpose of Review:
Arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease in the United States through both endemic transmission and travel-associated infections. This article reviews the major arbovirus infections that can cause neurologic disease likely to be encountered in the United States.Recent Findings:
West Nile virus continues to be an important cause of epidemic encephalitis, while emerging arbovirus infections such as dengue and chikungunya have rapidly expanded their geographic distribution. As emerging arboviruses expand in new geographic regions, neurologic abnormalities are reported in new patient populations.Summary:
Emerging arbovirus infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease throughout the world and in the United States. While no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved therapy is yet available for these infections, prompt recognition and diagnosis from the consulting neurologist will ensure appropriate supportive care for the patient.