Purpose of Review: This article reviews key principles in the identification of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) using standard and advanced imaging modalities. This article highlights the pitfalls and pearls of the imaging evaluation of patients with cancer at time of diagnosis and during cancer therapy and discusses the challenges of the imaging evaluation of treatment-related toxicities.
Recent Findings: Treatment of CNS tumors with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation alters the imaging appearance of the tumor and can be associated with a variety of treatment-related toxicities. The clinician must be familiar with how to assess response to treatment and how to differentiate tumor progression from treatment-related effects.
Summary: Management and follow-up of neuro-oncology patients is optimized by a comprehensive radiologic approach to CNS tumors and recognition of the challenges in the assessment of response to treatments.