Neurocutaneous Disorders

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Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

This article presents an up-to-date summary of the genetic etiology, diagnostic criteria, clinical features, and current management recommendations for the most common neurocutaneous disorders encountered in clinical adult and pediatric neurology practices.

RECENT FINDINGS

The phakomatoses are a phenotypically and genetically diverse group of multisystem disorders that primarily affect the skin and central nervous system. A greater understanding of the genetic and biological underpinnings of numerous neurocutaneous disorders has led to better clinical characterization, more refined diagnostic criteria, and improved treatments in neurofibromatosis type 1, Legius syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 2, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, tuberous sclerosis complex, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and incontinentia pigmenti.

SUMMARY

Neurologists require a basic knowledge of and familiarity with a wide variety of neurocutaneous disorders because of the frequent involvement of the central and peripheral nervous systems. A simple routine skin examination can often open a broad differential diagnosis and lead to improved patient care.

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