Pediatric Sleep Disorders

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Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

This article provides an overview of the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of insomnia, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements of sleep, parasomnias, narcolepsy, and sleep-related breathing disorders among children and adolescents.

RECENT FINDINGS

Pediatric presentations of sleep disorders differ from adult presentations, making diagnosis challenging. Specific clinical syndromes, such as cataplexy in children with narcolepsy type 1, can have an altogether different presentation compared to adult-onset symptoms, contributing to diagnostic delays and potential misdiagnoses. More broadly, research shows strong associations between sleep and daytime cognition, mood, and behavior among children with and without neurologic conditions and thus suggests a need to identify and treat sleep problems to optimize daytime functioning.

SUMMARY

Addressing sleep problems in children with neurologic conditions and neurodevelopmental disorders improves quality of life for patients and their families and, in many cases, reduces neurologic disease burden.

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