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Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by deficits in social communication and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests. This article provides the tools to diagnose and manage patients with autism spectrum disorder.Autism spectrum disorder is a heterogeneous condition with varying presentations, multiple etiologies, and a number of comorbidities that impact the course and management of the disorder. This article defines the core features of social communication deficits, including problems with social reciprocity, decreased nonverbal communication, and difficulties in developing and maintaining relationships. The second domain of repetitive behaviors and restricted interests, which includes the presence of stereotyped behaviors or speech, insistence on sameness and behavioral rigidity, intense or out of the ordinary interests, and unusual responses to sensory stimulation, is also delineated. Comorbidities commonly seen with autism spectrum disorder include medical, neurologic, and psychiatric conditions. Despite intense research efforts, the etiology of autism spectrum disorder remains unknown in most cases, but it is clear that a strong genetic component exists that interacts with various environmental risk factors. Current research is identifying overlapping neurobiological pathways that are involved in pathogenesis. Treatment involves intensive behavioral therapy and educational programming along with traditional ancillary services, such as speech/language, occupational, and physical therapies. Psychopharmacologic treatments are also used to target certain symptoms and comorbid conditions.Neurologists can play an important role in diagnosing autism spectrum disorder according to clinical criteria through a comprehensive evaluation that includes a thorough medical and developmental history, behavioral and play observations, and a review of standardized cognitive and language evaluations. Neurologists are also responsible for investigating etiologies, recommending and advocating for appropriate behavioral and educational interventions, and identifying and often managing comorbidities.