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Diseases related to the spine are common in the daily practice of neurology. As a result of recent advances in spine imaging, improved resolution and diagnostic capabilities have been realized, and the future of spine imaging holds much promise and excitement. In this focused review, we will discuss categories of spinal diseases, emphasizing the most common diseases and their imaging characteristics. There is no best technology for evaluating the spine. Rather, the choice of imaging modality should be guided by the patient's symptoms and clinical scenario. Thus, as is the case when ordering any study, it is important to have a clear differential diagnosis in mind when ordering and interpreting these tests.