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Neuron-targeted nucleic acid delivery systems are important technologies for realizing the potential of gene therapy for nervous system disorders. However, neurons are difficult cells to transfect using non-viral vectors due in part to the specific and unique delivery challenges present in these cells. We have investigated several bioactive peptides for their ability to assist in overcoming delivery barriers in mammalian cells. We summarize here our recent progress in developing and applying peptide-modified polycations for nucleic acid delivery. In addition, we present data demonstrating the potential of using multicomponent, peptide-modified polycations for nucleic acid delivery to neurons.