Co-encapsulating nanostructured lipid carriers for transdermal application: From experimental design to the molecular detail


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Abstract

Co-encapsulation of drugs directed at commonly associated diseases provides a convenient means for administration, especially if transdermally delivered.In this work, a comprehensive study for the co-encapsulation of drugs with a differential lipophilicity, olanzapine and simvastatin, and their transdermal delivery in a formulation containing nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) is presented. Focus is given to the evaluation of a strategy in which NLC and chemical permeation enhancers are combined. It comprises in vitro, in silico and cellular viability approaches. The optimization and rationalization of the systems are carried out using a two-step factorial design. It is shown that the external medium in the NLC dispersion strongly influences permeation. It is also seen that the use of NLC determines a synergistic effect with selected permeation enhancers, thus promoting marked flux enhancement ratios (48 and 21, respectively for olanzapine and simvastatin) relative to the drugs in solution. The developed formulations can be considered non-irritant. A correlation between enhancer positioning in a lipid bilayer, partially governed by a H-bonding phenomenon, and enhancement effect is suggested from molecular dynamics studies and experimental observations.Graphical abstract

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