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The aim of this work was to develop a targeted drug delivery system with potentials for intravesical instilled chemotherapy of superficial bladder cancer. The amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL-b-PEO) was first conjugated with the cyclic (Arginine–Glycine–Aspartic acid–d-Phenylalanine–Lysine) (c(RGDfK)) and fluorescein isothiocyannate (FITC) via the functional terminal groups of hydrophilic block, and then assembled into micelles. The interaction between micelles and various model cells was well studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The c(RGDfK) on the surface of the micelle was confirmed by 1H NMR analysis and cell affinity with human glioblastoma–astrocytoma cells (U87MG). The cell viability of bladder cancer cells (T-24 cells) after incubation with doxorubicin (DOX) loaded polymeric micelles was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay. The results revealed that c(RGDfK) modified micelles showed strong affinity to T-24 cells and strong inhibitory effect on the proliferation of T-24 cells when doxorubicin drug was loaded, indicating the high affinity of c(RGDfK) to bladder cancer cells. The c(RGDfK) modified micelles assembled from PCL-b-PEO diblock copolymers developed in this study are of great potentials as nano-scaled drug delivery system for intravesical instilled chemotherapy of superficial bladder cancer.