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This work aimed to improve the oral bioavailability and plasma lipid-lowering effect of probucol (PB) by constructing a combined drug delivery system (CDDS) composed of nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) and PEGylated poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (PEG-PAMAM). PEG-PAMAM with dendrimer generations of 5 (G5-PEG) or 7 (G7-PEG) were incorporated in PB-NLCs to form PB-CDDSs, PB-NLCs/G5-PEG and PB-NLCs/G7-PEG. The resultant two kinds of PB-CDDSs were characterized by particle size, zeta potential, drug encapsulation efficacy, PB release rates, and physical stability. Formulation effects of NLC and CDDS on the cellular uptake of hydrophobic drug were explored in Caco-2 cells by fluorescent Cy5 dye as a hydrophobic drug model. Furthermore, in vivo pharmacokinetics of the PB-CDDS composed of G5-PEG and PB-NLCs were investigated in a low density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLr −/−) mouse model, including plateau plasma PB concentrations after oral administration of multiple doses, and bioavailability after oral administration of a single dose of different PB formulations. In addition, lipid-lowering effect of PB-NLCs/G5-PEG was studied. The results indicate that both G5-PEG and G7-PEG significantly improved aqueous solubility of PB. The two PB-CDDSs exhibited similar particle size (around 150 nm) as PB-NLCs, but slower PB burst release rate, higher total PB release amount, and better particle morphology and storage stability than PB-NLCs. In comparison with traditional NLC, CDDS dramatically enhanced cellular uptake of Cy5 into Caco-2 cells. In vivo results demonstrate that PB-NLCs/G5-PEG had the highest plateau plasma PB concentration and oral bioavailability, and the greatest cholesterol-lowering effect in comparison with PB suspensions and PB-NLCs. Therefore, G5-PEG incorporating NLC can be exploited as a promising drug delivery system to improve oral bioavailability and lipid-lowering effect of PB.