Sustained release of stromal cell derived factor-1 from an antioxidant thermoresponsive hydrogel enhances dermal wound healing in diabetes


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Abstract

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a severe complication of diabetes mellitus. Altered cell migration due to microcirculatory deficiencies as well as excessive and prolonged reactive oxygen species production are implicated in the delayed healing of DFUs. The goal of this research was to assess whether sustained release of SDF-1, a chemokine that promotes endothelial progenitor cell homing and angiogenesis, from a citrate-based antioxidant thermoresponsive polymer would significantly improve impaired dermal wound healing in diabetes. Poly (polyethylene glycol citrate-co-N-isopropylacrylamide) (PPCN) was synthesized via sequential polycondensation and free radical polymerization reactions. SDF-1 was entrapped via gelation of the PPCN + SDF-1 solution above its lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and its release and bioactivity was measured. The effect of sustained release of SDF-1 from PPCN (PPCN + SDF-1) versus a bolus application of SDF-1 in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) on wound healing was evaluated in a diabetic murine splinted excisional dermal wound model using gross observation, histology, immunohistochemistry, and optical coherence tomography microangiography. Increasing PPCN concentration decreased SDF-1 release rate. The time to 50% wound closure was 11 days, 16 days, 14 days, and 17 days for wounds treated with PPCN + SDF-1, SDF-1 only, PPCN only, and PBS, respectively. Wounds treated with PPCN + SDF-1 had the shortest time for complete healing (24 days) and exhibited accelerated granulation tissue production, epithelial maturation, and the highest density of perfused blood vessels. In conclusion, sustained release of SDF-1 from PPCN is a promising and easy to use therapeutic strategy to improve the treatment of chronic non-healing DFUs.Graphical abstract

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