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Biocomputing nanoplatforms are designed to detect and integrate single or multiple inputs under defined algorithms, such as Boolean logic gates, and generate functionally useful outputs, such as delivery of therapeutics or release of optically detectable signals. Using sensing modules composed of small molecules, polymers, nucleic acids, or proteins/peptides, nanoplatforms have been programmed to detect and process extrinsic stimuli, such as magnetic fields or light, or intrinsic stimuli, such as nucleic acids, enzymes, or pH. Stimulus detection can be transduced by the nanomaterial via three different mechanisms: system assembly, system disassembly, or system transformation. The increasingly sophisticated suite of biocomputing nanoplatforms may be invaluable for a multitude of applications, including medical diagnostics, biomedical imaging, environmental monitoring, and delivery of therapeutics to target cell populations.