Organogels, promising drug delivery systems: an update of state-of-the-art and recent applications

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Organogels are semi-solid systems with an organic liquid phase immobilized by a three-dimensional network composed of self-assembled, crosslinked or entangled gelator fibers.Organogel applications are various, including chemistry, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, biotechnologies and food technology. In pharmacology, they are used as drug and vaccine delivery platforms for active ingredients via diverse routes such as transdermal, oral and parenteral. In a close past, their uses as drug delivery systems have been unfortunately hampered by the toxicity of the selected organic solvents. More recently, the synthesis of more biocompatible organogels has strengthened the development of several biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.This review provides a global view of organogels, such as nature, syntheses, characterizations and properties. An emphasis is placed on the most recent technologies used in the design of organogels as potential controlled delivery systems. A particular attention is provided to their newest therapeutic applications.Graphical abstractOwing their gel-sol transition, organogels issued from organogelators organized in biocompatible organic solvents present various drug release profiles. Adapted to broad applications, they are versatile controlled released systems.

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