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The penetration of nanomedicine into solid tumor still constitutes a great challenge for cancer therapy, which lead to the failure of thorough clearance of tumor cells. Aiming at solving this issue, lots of encouraging progress has been made in the development of multistage nanoparticles triggered by various stimuli in the past few years. Besides, the therapeutical effects of nanoagents are also greatly impacted by the complex tumor microenvironment, and remodeling tumor microenvironment has become another important approach for promoting nanoparticles penetration. In this review, we summarize and analyze recent research progress and challenges in promoting nanoparticle penetration based on two kinds of different strategies, which include size shrinkable nanoparticles and priming tumor microenvironments. Especially, many recent reported multi-strategy approaches based on particle size reduction in conjugated with other therapeutic strategies are discussed. And we expect to provide some useful enlightenments and proposals on nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for more effective therapy of solid tumors.