Ultrasound-responsive droplets for therapy: A review


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Abstract

The last two decades have seen the development of acoustically activated droplets, also known as phase-change emulsions, from a diagnostic tool to a therapeutic agent. Through bubble effects and triggered drug release, these superheated agents have found potential applications from oncology to neuromodulation. The aim of this review is to summarise the key developments in therapeutic droplet design and use, to discuss the current challenges slowing clinical translation, and to highlight the new frontiers progressing towards clinical implementation. The literature is summarised by addressing the droplet design criteria and by carrying out a multiparametric study of a range of droplet formulations and their associated vaporisation thresholds.

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