Although the vulva and vagina are embryologically and histologically different, proximity results in inflammatory conditions which commonly affect both regions. Patients often confuse ‘vulvitis' and ‘vaginitis' in characterizing symptoms. It is the job of the clinician to recognize inflammatory conditions specific to vulva and vagina, as well as to understand that inflammatory conditions can often involve both areas. This review of recent literature does not pretend to be comprehensive. Rather, it highlights specific conditions and research questions of recent interest.