Primary vaginal dilation for vaginal agenesis: strategies to anticipate challenges and optimize outcomes

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Purpose of review

Primary vaginal dilation is patient controlled, safe, less painful, and much lower cost compared with operative vaginoplasty and is considered first-line treatment for vaginal agenesis for women with Mayer–Rokitansky–Küster–Hauser syndrome and androgen insensitivity syndrome.

Recent findings

This review will highlight studies that assess the optimal methods of primary vaginal dilation and clarify ideal counseling, frequency of dilation, management of side-effects, and long-term physical and psychological outcomes.


Providers who care for women with vaginal agenesis should be prepared to not only teach the technical skill of dilation, but also to assess readiness and troubleshoot symptoms associated with dilation.

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