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This article provides an update on the use of cystoscopy at the time of prolapse and incontinence surgery.Iatrogenic lower urinary tract injury is a known complication of antiincontinence procedures and surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapse. Intraoperative cystoscopy improves detection of lower urinary tract injuries in women undergoing pelvic floor surgery. The pelvic surgeon has a number of agents available to aid in the cystoscopic visualization of ureteral efflux. When injuries of the urinary tract are identified and treated intraoperatively, there is decreased morbidity, lower healthcare costs, and a lower risk of litigation than when detection is delayed. Therefore, many organizations, including the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), the American Urogynecologic Society (AUGS), and the American Urological Association (AUA) recommend cystoscopy at the time of pelvic floor surgery.Cystoscopy should be universally employed at the time of prolapse and incontinence surgery, except in instances of isolated repair of the posterior compartment.