Risks and management of long-term corticosteroid use in chronic rhinosinusitis

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Purpose of reviewThe purpose of this review is to provide an update on the use and risks of long-term corticosteroids in the management of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS).Recent findingsLong-term use of systemic corticosteroids is not indicated in the management of CRS due to the associated side effects and potential complications. Therefore, recent research has focused on the safety and efficacy of topical corticosteroid, particularly second-generation corticosteroids, and their modes of administration. Second-generation corticosteroids are more potent and have less systemic bioavailability than their first-generation counterparts. However, caution must be taken with concomitant use of more than two types of corticosteroids (topical, systemic, inhaled etc.) and also with their dosage and frequency of administration to avoid adrenal suppression, growth suppression in children, elevated intraocular pressure or epistaxis. Research is ongoing into therapies that may reduce corticosteroid resistance which has been demonstrated in some nasal polyps.SummaryCorticosteroids play an essential role in the management of CRS; however, use must be tailored to the patient-specific disease and requires ongoing review and regular reevaluation by their physician.

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