Immunotherapy-based combinations: current status and perspectives

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Purpose of reviewSince the approval of ipilimumab, different immune checkpoint inhibitors, vaccines and costimulatory agonists have been developed with success, improving patient's survival in a number of different tumour types. However, immunotherapy results in durable responses but only in a fraction of patients. In order to improve this, combination of different immune agents is currently being attempted in the clinic with the potential of becoming one day the next wave of immune treatments available for our cancer patients.Recent findingsCombinatory regimens may have synergistic effects by acting at different points of the cancer immune cycle, from initiation and propagation of anticancer immunity, to stimulation of neoantigen presentation and priming, promotion of trafficking of immune cells to access the tumour and, finally, cancer-cell recognition and killing.SummaryIn this article, the most relevant combination strategies that are currently under research are reviewed, as they are expected to become a new standard of care in the near future.

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