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There is a large body of evidence supporting the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) also known as PhotoBioModulation (PBM) when used for the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, or high-dose chemotherapy regimens. This review aims at giving the state of the art of this technique in this indication.Recent advances in LLLT/PBM technology, together with a better understanding of mechanisms involved and dosimetric parameters may lead to the management of a broader range of complications associated with cancer treatment. This could enhance patient adherence to cancer therapy, and improve quality of life and treatment outcomes.The article discusses LLLT/PBM mechanisms of action, dosimetry, and safety, and aims to identify some cancer treatment side-effects for which LLLT/PBM may prove to be effective (oral mucositis, radiation dermatitis, lymphedema). In addition, LLLT/PBM parameters for each of these complications are suggested and future research directions are discussed.