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In this article, we focus on the potential benefits and risks of chemotherapy administration before (perioperative) or after (pseudoadjuvant) a curative resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases.In the published evidence, there is a lack of survival benefit from peri or postoperative chemotherapy in the context of resectable metastatic CRC. However, high-risk patients may have a certain benefit when receiving a postoperative cytotoxic treatment. Apart from, according to the published data, the administration of a preoperative chemotherapy has been associated with serious parenchymal liver damage and an increase in the postoperative morbidity-mortality rate.Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for metastatic CRC, but the risk of recurrence remains high. The current guidelines recommend the administration of either a perioperative or a pseudoadjuvant chemotherapy in this setting despite the absence of survival benefit. A better selection of patients who may require and gain an advantage from chemotherapy in the setting of resectable metastasis is highly needed. In this view, a prospective trial enrolling patients at high risk of recurrence is ongoing.