Cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation is a highly successful surgical procedure. The techniques introduced over the past 25 years have reduced the incidence of many of the complications associated with cataract extraction in the past. As more sophisticated surgical techniques are developed and as cataract surgery becomes more advanced, pharmacologic intervention will become increasingly important. Drug therapy can be used to facilitate surgery, to prevent complications, and to hasten visual rehabilitation. We discuss several groups of drugs including antibiotics and antiseptics, mydriatics and miotics, viscoelastics, ocular hypotensive agents, anti-inflammatory agents, and collagen shields.