The coming age of enophthalmos

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Purpose of review

Many factors are known to affect the health of the ocular surface. Enophthalmos is an often-overlooked component of ocular surface disease, and its prevalence is likely on the rise. This review outlines the many causes of enophthalmos, summarizes recent literature describing its relation to the health of the conjunctiva and cornea, and reviews new ways to treat it in clinical practice.

Recent findings

The terms giant fornix syndrome, senile sunken upper lids, and prostaglandin-associated periorbitopathy have recently been coined to describe newly recognized syndromes associated with enophthalmos. Many of these syndromes can lead to ocular surface disease and are becoming more prevalent as the population ages.


With an understanding of the causes of enophthalmos and its relation to the health of the ocular surface, an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan can be made for patients presenting with periorbital and ocular surface disease.

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