Ocular manifestations of bartonellosis

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Abstract

Purpose of review

To review the systemic and ocular complications of Bartonella spp. infections specifically cat scratch disease, encompassing epidemiology, laboratory diagnostics, ophthalmic imagining, and treatment.

Recent findings

Recent studies have shown that ocular manifestations occur in approximately 4.4% of cat scratch disease patients. The annual prevalence is lower than previously reported to be approximately 12 500 cases annually. Mainstay treatment continues to be oral antibiotics with and without corticosteroids and is dependent on associated systemic manifestations, age, and patient immune status. More recently anti-VEGF agents have been used for complications such as cystoid macular edema and choroidal neovascularization.

Summary

Bartonella spp. infections continue to be a common cause uveitis with ophthalmic manifestations ranging from neuroretinits, vascular occlusions, to choroidal granulomas. Review of associated risk factors including contact with feline reservoirs will aid in recognition and diagnosis of this disease entity. Laboratory diagnostics continue to improve to help with the diagnosis of this entity.

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