Functional electrical stimulation and hybrid orthosis systems

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The application of functional electrical stimulation to the neurologically impaired patient is covered in this review. Reports concerning the effects of different functional electrical stimulation training regimens are becoming more abundant, in particular with reference to cycle ergometry. Various techniques to improve the restoration of gait in spinal cord injury have been reported. There have been some indications of technology transfer and of a wider application of some systems, in particular the hybrid reciprocating gait orthosis and the upper limb neuroprosthesis. There have also been some new applications for enhancing coughing, ischial pressure relief, and control of tremors.

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