Innate immune mechanisms in transplant allograft vasculopathy

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


Purpose of review

Allograft vasculopathy is the leading cause of late allograft loss following solid organ transplantation. Ischemia reperfusion injury and donor-specific antibody-induced complement activation confer heightened risk for allograft vasculopathy via numerous innate immune mechanisms, including MyD88, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and complement-induced noncanonical nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling.

Recent findings

The role of MyD88, a signal adaptor downstream of the Toll-like receptors (TLR), has been defined in an experimental heart transplant model, which demonstrated that recipient MyD88 enhanced allograft vasculopathy. Importantly, triggering receptor on myeloid receptor 1, a MyD88 amplifying signal, was present in rejecting human cardiac transplant biopsies and enhanced the development of allograft vasculopathy in mice. HMGB1, a nuclear protein that activates Toll-like receptors, also enhanced the development of allograft vasculopathy. Complement activation elicits assembly of membrane attack complexes on endothelial cells which activate noncanonical NF-κB signaling, a novel complement effector pathway that induces proinflammatory genes and potentiates endothelial cell-mediated alloimmune T-cell activation, processes which enhance allograft vasculopathy.


Innate immune mediators, including HMGB1, MyD88, and noncanonical NF-κB signaling via complement activation contribute to allograft vasculopathy. These pathways represent potential therapeutic targets to reduce allograft vasculopathy after solid organ transplantation.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles