Strongyloides stercoralis: early diagnosis gets the worm in solid organ transplantation: early diagnosis gets the worm

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infection affecting millions of people worldwide. Complications of infection are strongly associated with alcoholism, immunosuppression, and organ transplantation. Delayed diagnosis results in hyperinfection syndrome and disseminated strongyloidiasis leading to mortality rates approaching 80%. Early detection, and prevention of infection and transmission are key to diminish this illness.

Recent findings

In this review, we cover the basic concepts in immunity, immunosuppression, and disorder necessary for understanding the infectious syndromes associated with Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Focused discussion on donor-derived transmission and recipient risk in solid organ transplantation is presented. Current methodology for diagnosis, screening algorithms, and treatment are also reviewed.

Summary

Strongyloidiasis complicated by hyperinfection and dissemination remains associated with a poor outcome. The poor outcome pleads for a high level of suspicion and aggressive treatment in at-risk patients. As the population of transplant patients continues to increase, the risk of infection also increases, compelling us to address this highly fatal infectious complication in solid organ transplantation (SOT). Here we review the pathology, immunology, diagnosis, and treatment of strongyloides infection in the immunosuppressed SOT population.

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