Hepatitis E viral infection in solid organ transplant patients

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature published in the past 10 years with focus to the best literatures published since 2015 regarding chronic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in patients who received solid organ transplantation.

Recent findings

Diagnosis of this disease relies primarily on identification of HEV RNA in serum and more recently in stool as way of predicting relapse and guide therapy duration. Current management focuses primarily on primary prevention and supportive care, because additional research is needed to identify efficacious pharmacologic therapy, though use of ribavirin has shown promise in case series in treatment of some genotypes.

Summary

Infection with HEV is a rare but significant infection in organ transplant recipients. Though initially thought to be a primarily self-limiting infection, cases of chronic and persistent infection are increasing, being recognized both in developing and developed nations as a cause of cirrhosis, and, in some cases, of fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical manifestations of this infection, including evidence of hepatocellular liver injury, are mostly indistinguishable from alternative diagnoses.

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