Genitourinary vascularized composite allotransplantation

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Purpose of reviewGenitourinary vascularized allotransplantation (GUVCA) is gaining interest as a treatment option for patients with functional and aesthetic urogenital tissue loss. Only three cases have been done worldwide and research on the implementation and feasibility of this procedure is in an elementary state.Recent findingsThe psychosocial impact and ethical considerations with GUVCA are remote, particularly because of the intimate and personal nature of genital tissue. Though two of the three penile transplantation cases are considered successful, various unexpected factors and complications have been described alongside these successes. Treatment outcome depends on a complex combination of immunological, technical, and psychosocial components that will be different per individual case. Multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment protocols should be established to ensure that the quality of life in GUVCA recipients can be increased in a safe and ethical way.SummaryPenile transplantation represents challenging new potential to improve phallus reconstruction in patients with severe genital tissue defects, but worldwide experience with GUVCA is limited. Controlled multicenter research is required to better define the risk/benefit ratio of this experimental yet promising treatment option.

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