Active targeted delivery of immune therapeutics to lymph nodes

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Purpose of reviewOrgan transplantation is a life-saving procedure and the only option for patients with end-organ failure. Immune therapeutics have been key to the success of organ transplantation. However, immune therapeutics are still unable to eliminate graft rejection and their toxicity has been implicated in poorer long-term transplant outcomes. Targeted nanodelivery has the potential to enhance not only the therapeutic index but also the bioavailability of the immune therapeutics. One of the key sites of immune therapeutics delivery is lymph node where the priming of immune cells occur. The focus of this review is on nanomedicine research to develop the targeted delivery of immune therapeutics to lymph nodes for controlling immune activation.Recent findingsAs nanomedicine creates its niche in clinical care, it provides novel immunotherapy platforms for transplant recipients. Draining lymph nodes are the primary loci of immune activation and represent a formidable site for delivery of wide variety of immune therapeutics. There have been relentless efforts to improve the properties of nanomedicines, to have in-depth knowledge of antigen and drug loading, and, finally, to explore various routes of passive and active targeted delivery to lymph nodes.SummaryThe application of nanotechnology principles in the delivery of immune therapeutics to the lymph node has created enormous excitement as a paradigm shifting approach that enables targeted delivery of a gamut of molecules to achieve a desired immune response. Therefore, innovative strategies that improve their efficacy while reducing their toxicity are among the highest unmet needs in transplantation.

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