Conquering combined thoracic organ and liver transplantation: indications and outcomes for heart-liver and lung–liver transplantation

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Combined thoracic organ and liver transplantation has been shown to be a viable treatment option for patients with end-stage disease lung or heart and disease. There are increasing number of cases reported in the literature, as the number of institutions utilizing this strategy is growing. Herein, we review the current literature of combined thoracic and liver transplantation.

Recent findings

A larger number of combined heart or lung and liver transplants (CHLT and CLLT) are being performed. A recent literature search showed approximately 231 CHLT and 89 CLLT and being described. One-year patient survival ranged from 71 to 80% for CLLT and 80–93% for CHLT, respectively. Indications for combined transplant and disease-specific outcomes are still being evaluated. Additionally, salvage modalities such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ex-vivo lung perfusion are also being described.

Summary

Combined thoracic and liver transplant continues to be a viable treatment option for patients with end-stage disease that would likely not survive single transplant alone. Salvage modalities, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ex-vivo lung perfusion, may help in extending candidacy for this combined transplant. Outcomes, to date, are similar to results observed for solitary thoracic organ recipients, justifying CHLT and CLLT as a viable option for these patients. Continued identification of outcomes is needed to justify allocation of dual organs to a single recipient.

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