Primary graft dysfunction in heart transplantation

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Purpose of review

Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is common early postheart transplantation; however, use of standardized definitions remains inconsistent. This review focuses on understanding the incidence, classification, risk factors, and management of PGD.

Recent findings

The incidence and mortality of PGD in heart transplant varies considerably in the published literature ranging from 1.0% to 31% and 3% to 75%, respectively. There is also considerable variation in management strategies with current data favoring early intervention.


PGD in heart transplantation remains a challenging problem associated with significant mortality and morbidity. There is need for a consistent and accessible definition to better define associated risk factors and optimize management strategies.

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