Adenovirus infection in pediatric transplant recipients: are effective antiviral agents coming our way?

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Adenoviruses (AdVs) infection is a self-limited disease in the majority of immunocompetent children and adults, but can cause disseminated and life-threatening illness in immunocompromised hosts. This article will discuss therapeutic strategies for AdV infection in the pediatrics transplant recipient.

Recent findings

Currently, there is no FDA approved antiviral therapy for AdV infection. Accordingly, the primary initial therapy would be decreasing immunosuppression, whenever possible. Cidofovir (CDV) is an antiviral drug whose use has been associated with significant reductions of AdV viral load and, in some series improved survival in recipients of solid organ transplant (SOT) and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). However, its use is also associated with significant toxicity. Brincidofovir (BCV) is a lipid formulation of CDV, which has an improved oral bioavailability and favorable toxicity profile compared with CDV. However, studies have only shown modest benefit from BCV for AdV disease or viremia. Immunotherapy is a growing field in the management of this virus infection on HSCT patients with promising results.

Summary

Current evidence support the use of CDV and BCV, as rescue therapy, on SOT and HSCT transplant patients. Immunotherapy had only been proven successful in HSCT patients, as an option for refractory cases or rescue therapy for AdV infection.

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