Renal osteodystrophy

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Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops in most patients with chronic renal failure, and is associated with the histologic finding of osteitis fibrosa cystica. The disease is characterized by growth failure and severe bone deformities in children, especially the very young. The pathogenesis of renal osteodystrophy is related to phosphate retention, and its effect on calcium and calcitriol metabolism, in addition to roles played by metabolic acidosis, cytokines, and degradation of parathyroid hormone. Treatment includes restriction of dietary phosphorous intake, phosphate binders, and use of active metabolites of vitamin D.

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