The impact of pain on infants has been the topic of increasing research interest over the past decade. Although pain is now known to be stressful and the source of immediate and long term consequences, inadequate progress has been made in infant pain management. Research evidence provides the basis for effective pain management. However, the quality of the evidence, inconsistent findings, and the perceived lack of clinical relevance may have hindered the utilization of research on infant pain management in clinical practice. Reconceptualization of the definition of pain, increased methodologic rigor, validated assessment approaches, and systematic reviews of research studies on pain management may provide the opportunity for improved pain management using evidence-based practice.