Overview of genetics of disorders of sexual development

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Abstract

Purpose of review

Disorders of sexual development (DSD) are a genetic and phenotypic heterogeneous group of congenital disorders. This review focuses on the genetics of DSD and aims to recognize and contextualize, in a systematic way, based on the classification and the genetic mechanisms, the latest developments in the field of DSD diagnostics.

Recent findings

Due to the current diagnostic armamentarium, during the past decade, the field of DSD diagnostics has changed dramatically from the recognition of few genes and cytogenetic abnormalities, to the identification of multiple genes and a wide arrange of genetic mechanisms involved in the genesis of DSD. In addition, the phenotypes associated with the genetic mechanism have expanded tremendously.

Summary

Despite the current diagnostic limitations, the landscape for genetics of DSD is encouraging due to discovery of new genes, their interactions, and the recognition of the variety of mechanisms involved.

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