Human papillomavirus epidemiology and vaccine recommendations: selected review of the recent literature

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Purpose of review

This article provides a clinically relevant review and analysis of the latest research and recommendations regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

Recent findings

Although studies have found that bivalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines are well tolerated and effective, high-risk HPV types not included in these vaccines are responsible for a significant burden of disease worldwide. Clinical trials have found that the recently licensed 9-valent vaccine, which includes five additional high-risk HPV types, is well tolerated and efficacious. This vaccine was added to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices HPV vaccination recommendations in 2015. A two-dose series in girls and boys 9–14 years old with a 6- or 12-month interval between doses has been shown to result in antibody titers noninferior to those measured after the three-dose series in women 16–26 years old. The Food and Drug Administration is considering these data.


Recent publications highlight the safety and effectiveness of HPV vaccines, the licensure of the 9-valent HPV vaccine, and the revision of HPV vaccine recommendations.

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