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The current review focuses on the neonatal presentation of disorders of sex development, summarize the current approach to the evaluation of newborns and describes recent advances in understanding of underlying genetic aetiology of these conditions.Several possible candidate genes as well as other adverse environmental factors have been described as contributing to several clinical subgroups of 46,XY DSDs. Moreover, registry-based studies showed that infants with suspected DSD may have extragenital anomalies and in 46,XY cases, being small for gestational age (SGA), cardiac and neurological malformations are the commonest concomitant conditions.Considering that children and adults with DSD may be at risk of several comorbidities a clear aetiological diagnosis will guide further management. To date, a firm diagnosis is not reached in over half of the cases of 46,XY DSD. Whilst it is likely that improved diagnostic resources will bridge this gap in the future, the next challenge to the clinical community will be to show that such advances will result in an improvement in clinical care.