Lipoxins and aspirin-triggered lipoxins are lipid mediators generated from arachidonic acid that act to reduce inflammation and promote resolution. In addition, two new families of lipid mediators were uncovered, namely resolvins (resolution phase interaction products) and protectins, which derive from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid. They possess potent anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and pro-resolving properties. Eicosapentaenoic acid-derived mediators are denoted resolvins of the E series, and those biosynthesized from docosahexaenoic acid are resolvins of the D series (RvDs) and protectins. Aspirin impinges on these systems, triggering formation of the epimeric 17R-series RvDs — denoted as ‘aspirin-triggered-RvDs’ — which possess bioactivity in vivo equivalent to that evoked by their 17S-series counterparts (i.e. RvDs). These bioactive molecules open new avenues and approaches to therapeutic interventions via accelerated resolution of inflammation.