MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding, single-stranded RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes by binding their 3′-untranslated region. miRNAs are important regulators of various biological processes, including cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and tissue development. Furthermore, aberrant miRNA expression has emerged as an important pathomechanism in various human diseases, including osteoporosis. Thus, the therapeutic potential of miRNA has attracted great interest recently. Here, we focused on the roles of miRNAs in bone homeostasis and the potential of miRNAs as therapeutic targets.