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Microbial infections are one of the major causes of death among world population.The antibacterial resistance results in the failure of the antibiotic therapy.Exploration of new strategies to increase the efficacy of available antibiotics.Polymers with antibacterial activity or modified to confer bactericidal power.Polymer-based nanoparticles as antibiotic drugs delivery systems.Diseases related to bacterial infections represent a relevant challenge for public health. Despite the success obtained with the conventional antibiotic therapies, indeed, new drawbacks have been identified. In addition to poor drugs solubility and stability, adverse side effects, and many other factors which together lead to a low patient compliance, the antibiotic resistance and the lack in the development of new antimicrobial agents are the main problems. On the basis of these considerations, the research interest is focused on the exploration of new strategies able to circumvent these drawbacks improving the efficacy of current antibiotics. In this context, nanosized systems, which allow to enhance both the pharmacokinetic profiles and the mechanism of action of drugs, play a key role.