Although the gastrointestinal tract is the primary target of bariatric surgery, its contributions to the metabolic changes observed after surgery are still underestimated. Changes in the number of incretin-producing cells could result in the modified hormonal response seen after surgery. Additionally, the rate of absorption and consumption of glucose could contribute to the ameliorated glycaemia. Moreover, decreased intestinal permeability could prevent endotoxemia.
Recently, numerous studies have focused on intestinal adaptation following bariatric surgeries. These studies bring new insight into the different roles the GI tract plays in the metabolic outcomes of bariatric surgery and open new avenues for therapeutic treatments.