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Mast cells are innate immune cells that possess immunoregulatory activity.Mast cells exhibit antimicrobial activity and aide in bacterial and viral clearance.Mast cell activators enhance host antimicrobial activity.Mast cell activators provide vaccine adjuvant activity.Mast cells are an important cell type of the innate immune system that when activated, play a crucial role in generating protective innate host responses after bacterial and viral infection. Additionally, activated mast cells influence lymph node composition to regulate the induction of adaptive immune responses. The recognition that mast cells play a beneficial role in host responses to microbial infection and induction of adaptive immunity has provided the rationale to evaluate mast cell activators for use as antimicrobials or vaccine adjuvants. This review summarizes the role of mast cell activators in antimicrobial responses while also discussing the use of different classes of mast cell activators as potent vaccine adjuvants that enhance the induction of protective immune responses.