Renal sarcoidosis: approach to diagnosis and management

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Abstract

Purpose of review

The purpose of this article is to provide understanding of renal sarcoidosis, the different types of renal sarcoidosis, disease burden of renal involvement, and treatment options.

Recent findings

The frequency of renal involvement seems to be underestimated, but renal sarcoidosis represents a relevant group of organ manifestations and significantly adds to the patient's morbidity. Because histopathological analysis of renal biopsy specimens can reveal various entities, a diagnostic workup is necessary in every patient with sarcoidosis.

Summary

If systematically screened for renal manifestations are likely to occur in up to 25–30% of all sarcoidosis patients. The most common histological form of renal sarcoidosis is the granulomatous interstitial nephritis; however, granulomas can be absent. Furthermore, one can find various forms of secondary glomerulonephritis. In cases with dysregulated calcium homeostasis, nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis are commonly detectable kidney diseases. AA amyloidosis or renal masses because of granuloma formation are considered to be rare manifestations. In addition to glucocorticoids various immunosuppressive treatments such as tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors have proven to be effective based on case series.

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