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A relatively new class of CD4 expressing T cells that also express and release interleukin-17 (Th17 cells) is gaining attention based on their capacity to regulate inflammatory responses in a spectrum of chronic autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this review is to consider recent studies relating to the critical role played by Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis.Th17 cells are unique in their capacity to adapt to local molecular cues to variably promote or suppress inflammation. On the basis of knowledge established originally in the context of autoimmune disorders, recent investigations indicate that Th17 cells are instrumental in all stages of granuloma evolution, including granuloma formation, maintenance and resolution. Recent research shed light on the mechanisms regulating Th17 cell plasticity and the implications for sarcoidosis disease progression, such as the mechanisms by which regulatory T cells (Tregs) promote resolution of Th17-mediated inflammation.The balance between Th17 cells and Tregs in sarcoidosis patients has important implications for clinicians and clinical researchers seeking more reliable prognostic markers and more targeted therapeutic agents.