Hardiness and the Concept of Courage

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The purpose of the present study was to develop a measure of courage in order to examine the relationship between hardiness and physiological functioning, as hardiness has been proposed to buffer the physical effects of stress on the body. An empirically derived instrument that measures courage was constructed. A pool of potential scale items was administered to 200 college students and reduced to an optimal grouping. Four main factors were identified. An additional sample of 80 college students was administered the reduced Courage Scale, the Personal Views Survey (S. Maddi, 1990), the Courage Scale (N. B. Schmidt & M. Koselka, 2000), and the Seriousness of Illness Survey (A. R. Wyler, M. Masuda, & T. H. Holmes, 1968). Results indicated that there were relationships among these various measures. However, courage did not add to the amount of the variance of physiological health accounted for by hardiness. Possible uses of the Courage Scale developed in the present study are discussed.

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