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In this article, executive or leadership coaching is considered within a broad context of the history of general applied psychology. Executive coaching is briefly explored in its major applications. Advocacy of the randomized controlled trials approach to advance the science base of the field is questioned. The current scientific and conceptual foundations of the understanding of the development of human expertise are advocated in a well-supported, empirically grounded framework within which a 21st-century practice of general applied psychology and executive coaching could flourish.