Role of bone morphogenetic proteins in ankle and hindfoot fusion

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Since first being introduced, the use of adjuvant osteobiologic agents has begun to revolutionize musculoskeletal surgery by providing reliable, safe osteobiologic augmentation, with robust bone healing in patients who in the past were considered to be nonoperative candidates. Among the current osteobiological adjuvant agents, recombinant bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 has emerged as the most reliable for patients who are considered high-risk for foot and ankle surgery. Few reports exist on the use of BMP whether in the form of rhBMP-2 or 7 in foot and ankle surgery. The purpose of this review article is to give the practicing surgeon a basic review of BMPs and what role they can play in ankle and hindfoot fusions especially in a high-risk patient.

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